Comparing Robot Grasping Teleoperation across Desktop and Virtual Reality with ROS Reality

There are many tasks that are too dangerous for humans to perform that would be better suited for a robot, such as defusing a bomb or repairing a nuclear reactor. Ideally, these robots would be autonomous, but currently, robots are not able to perform all tasks on their own yet. For robots to help with these problems today, they are directly controlled from afar by a human user, in an act called teleoperation. With this work, we set out to develop a teleoperation interface that is as intuitive and efficient as possible for completing the task.

We developed a virtual reality interface to allow novice users to efficiently teleoperate a robot and view it’s environment in 3D. We have released an open-source ROS package, ROS Reality, which allows anyone to connect a ROS network to a Unity scene over the internet via websockets. ROS topics can be sent to the Unity scene, and data from the Unity scene can be sent to the ROS network as a topic. This allows a human to perceive a scene and teleoperate the robot in it to perform a complex task, such as picking up a cup, as simply as they would in real life. We conducted a user study to compare the speed of our interface to traditional teleoperation methodologies, such as keyboard and monitor, and found a 66% increase in task completion under our system.

Below is a video of our system being used to teleoperate a Baxter robot at MIT from Brown University (41 miles away). Since our bandwidth requirements are about the same as a Skype call, we are able to establish a relatively low-latency connection that allows 12 cups to be easily stacked in a row. For more information, please check out our paper, which was accepted to ISRR 2017!

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